This union of shoemakers (the largest American labor organization at the
time) was named after the patron saint of cobblers and shoemakers. In 1870, the
Chinese were used in North Adams, Massachusetts, to break a strike by the
Knights of St. Crispen. In response, the Knights of St. Crispen attempted to
form the strikebreakers into a Chinese chapter of their union. The failure to
organize the Chinese led many other workers in the East to oppose Chinese labor
and support Chinese exclusion. Meanwhile in San Francisco, the St. Crispens
organized a large, anti-Chinese protest.